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寥我耪腿世 挛严形惹挛难衣 信饰膛湍乐热 衔 盐招劳磐绒 衔嫌诉秩 峙屯壅 氯奈 闲翁垩宋论 雄

.. 绵痣钼1, .. 蔫痂2, .. 剽邃钼1

1藻溴疣朦眍 妙耋溧瘃蜮屙眍 袜篦眍 喻疱驿屙桢 铖箐囵耱忮眄 磬篦眍-桉耠邃钼囹咫觇 桧耱栩篁 铉屦眍泐 疱黜钽 瘥犴钽 躅轳蜮嗷,

2 喻疱驿屙桢 蓄耨栝耜铋 嚓噤屐梃 磬箨 穷铍钽梓羼觇 桧耱栩篁 欣, .

燕黻-襄蝈疳箴, 蓄耨 e-mail: garlov@mail.ru

项滗屦驵龛 麒耠屙眍耱 镳桊钿睇 镱矬鲨 瘥 忸珈铈眍 矬蝈 耦躔囗屙 桴 徼铍瞽汨麇耜 疣珥铌圜羼蜮屙眍 耱痼牝箴, 赅 忄骓彘泐 屐屙蜞 蝠栲潲 镳桤磬觐 耦耱龛 徼瞽腩汨麇耜钽 镳钽疱耨 忤溧. 袜扈 怙屦恹 镳邃腩驽 戾蝾 忸耧痤桤忸漶蜮 耱痼牝箴 镱矬梃 镳铎腩恹 瘥 矬蝈 耔眭痤龛玎鲨 耩铌钼 镱塍麇龛 沐蝈痤沐眄钽 镱蝾祚蜮 邃桧铎 皴珙眄铎 瘥犷忸漤铎 鲨觌.

理嚯桤 忮潴 戾踵龛珈钼 礤轲铨礓铌痂眄铋 疱泱鲨 礤疱耱 镱玮铍桦 篑蜞眍忤螯 徼瞽蝈蹴铍钽梓羼觇 镳桧鲨稃 疣琊噌铗囹 耔耱屐 箫疣怆屙 疣珈眍驽龛屐 镳铎腩恹 瘥 膻猁 蜩镱 皴珙眍 礤疱耱, 怅膻鬣簋 耧铖钺 耱桁箅鲨 蝾痨铈屙梃 镱腩忸泐 耦琊瀛忄龛 镳铊玮钿栩咫彘 耦麇蜞龛屐 觐祜脲犟钼 铍钽梓羼觇 泐痨铐嚯 忸玟彘耱忤. 蒡 耔耱屐 玎眄 5 噔. 疋桎. 蜒研, 篑钼屦眈蜮钼囗桢 觐蝾痤 镳钿铍驵弪, 镳邃磬珥圜屙 蜞赕 潆 疣聒桊屙 镳铊玮钿耱忮眄 忸珈铈眍耱彘 玎忸漶觐泐 忸耧痤桤忸漶蜮 漕 忭羼彗铐钽 牮筱腩泐滂黜钽 鲨觌. 蓐铍钽-翳玷铍钽梓羼觇 镳桧鲨 箫疣怆屙 玎觌噱蝰 疣珥瞽磬镳噔脲眄铎 忸玟彘耱忤 翳玷铍钽梓羼觇 噤尻忄蝽 觐祜脲犟铎 (蝠栲漕) 铍钽梓羼觇 羿戥蝾痤 耦麇蜞龛 泐痨铐铗屦囡桢.

亦, 潆 耱桁箅鲨 镱腩忸泐 耦琊邂囗 镳铊玮钿栩咫彘 镳铎腩恹 瘥 镳 玎忸漶觐 镱塍麇龛 镱蝾祚蜮 怙屦恹 猁 镳邃腩驽 镳桧鲨 忸玟彘耱忤 汨镱蜞豚扈麇耜桁 礤轲钽铕铐嚯 羿牝铕囔, 疣琊噌铗囗, 篑钼屦眈蜮钼囗 忭邃疱 铖弪痤忸漶蜮 磬蝮疣朦睇 镳屣囵囹 桤铍桊钼囗眍 镥疱漤彘 漕腓 汨镱翳玎. 疱珞朦蜞蝈 镳桁屙屙 钽 镳屣囵囹 镱塍屙 篑蝾轺桠 镱腩骅蝈朦睇 翦牝 镱恹龛 耱屣屙 瘥犷忸漤钽 桉镱朦珙忄龛 漯箧铖蜩 耦琊邂囗 襦祛 耩邃礤 磬 15%.

朽琊噌铗囗 蜞赕 耧铖钺 耱桁箅鲨 耦琊邂囗 襦祧钼 瘥 耱疣牝铎 桤铍桊钼囗眍 玎漤彘 漕腓 汨镱翳玎, 箐嚯屐铋 镳 镳桡铗钼脲龛 邈 镥疱漤彘 漕腓, 黩 镱玮铍弪 镱恹耔螯 耱屣屙 瘥犷忸漤钽 桉镱朦珙忄龛 襦祛 徨 镳铊玮钿耱忮眄 铗钿钼 耥桤栩 疣聃钿 汨镱翳珙.

碾 耦躔囗屙 瘥犷忸漤钽 赅麇耱忄 镱恹龛 耱屣屙 瘥犷忸漤钽 桉镱朦珙忄龛

镳铊玮钿栩咫彘 铖弪痤恹 觐耱桉螓 瘥 疣琊噌铗囗 戾蝾 桴 潆栩咫铋 镳铎脲眄铋 疱珏瓠忄鲨 耩邃 牮栩梓羼觐 耦脲眍耱 4-8%, 怅膻鬣 疣耱忸瘥 镱忄疱眍 耦腓. 杨溴疰囗桢 镳铊绛忸滂蝈脲 铋 耩邃 铌噻噱 觐祜脲犟睇 翳玷铍钽梓羼觇 翦牝 - 玎溴疰牦 镱腩忸泐 耦疱忄龛 磬耱箫脲龛 疱珙疳鲨 磬 纛礤 潆栩咫钽 耦躔囗屙 犭嚆铒痂蝽钽 翳玷铍钽梓瀛耜钽 耦耱龛 铕汔龛珈, 恹骅忄屐铖蜩 镳铊玮钿栩咫彘. 朽琊噌铗囗睇 戾蝾 疱珏疴圉梃 镳瞽桤忸滂蝈脲 祛驽 猁螯 桉镱朦珙忄 礤 蝾朦觐 潆 疣聒桊屙 耩铌钼, 箫腩蝽屙 沭圄桕 鲥腩 镱恹龛 翦牝桠眍耱 瘥犷忸漤 疣犷, 眍 潆 瘥犷忸漤钽 铖忸屙 眍恹 忤漕 瘥, 镱耜铍 箧 桤忮耱睇 翦牝 镱恹龛 蝈祜钼 痤耱 恹骅忄屐铖蜩 祛腩滂 铋 耩邃. 骂珈铈眍耱 桉镱朦珙忄龛 疣耱忸痤 溴忸 镱忄疱眄铋 耦腓 痤觐 镳桁屙桁 磬 怦艴 囡圊 徼铗艴龛觇 镱玮铍弪 忭邃痂螯 眍恹 戾蝾潲 疱珏疴圉梃 箫疣怆屙 耦琊邂囗桢 镳瞽桤忸滂蝈脲, 镱恹龛 恹骅忄屐铖蜩 桕瘥, 腓麒眍 祛腩滂, 篑桦屙 蝈祜钼 痤耱 镱耠邃礤 祉钽桢 漯筱桢.

碾 玎忸漶觐泐 忸耧痤桤忸漶蜮 镳桊钿睇 镱矬鲨 镳铎腩恹 瘥 疣琊噌铗囗 耧铖钺 箫疣怆屙 耩铌囔 疣珈眍驽龛 镳铛钿睇 忤漕 疣珥铋 皴珙眄铖螯 礤疱耱, 铖簌羼蜮瀛禧 疣珥铐囡疣怆屙睇 忸玟彘耱忤屐 翳玷铍钽梓羼觇 噤尻忄蝽钽 觐祜脲犟 铍钽梓羼觇 羿戥蝾痤. 蓐铍钽梓羼觇 镳桧鲨 箫疣怆屙 玎觌噱蝰 疱珏疴圉梃 镳铊玮钿栩咫彘 瘥 箜璀忮瘃嚯铋 潆 疣珥 忤漕 痂蜩麇耜铋 耦脲眍耱 镳 忤漕耧弼梏梓羼觇 镳邃礤疱耱钼 镱痤泐恹 珥圜屙 桡磬朦睇趸 羿牝铕钼 (蝈祜屦囹箴 铖忮眄铖蜩) 镱耠邃簋 耱璀祗鲨 桴 耦琊邂囗 矬蝈 镫噔眍泐 镥疱忸溧 觐祜脲犟 礤疱耱钼 铍钽梓羼觇 篑腩忤.

袜镳桁屦, 疱珏疴圉棹 忮皴眄屙屦羼蝮桴 忤漕 (钺牝钼 玎忸漶觐泐 忸耧痤桤忸漶蜮) 铖簌瀛耱怆 镳 蝈祜屦囹箴 磬 1-20 龛驽 龛骓邈 礤疱耱钼钽 镱痤汔 (潆 溧眄钽 忤溧 疣覃) 玎屐礤龛, 疱珏疴圉棹 铖屙礤礤疱耱簋 - 磬 1-20 恹 忮瘐礤泐 礤疱耱钼钽 镱痤汔 镳 噤尻忄蝽铎 纛蝾镥痂钿. 蓐铍钽-翳玷铍钽梓羼觐 铖眍忸 耧铖钺 怆弪 桉镱朦珙忄龛 忄姝礤轼桴 翳腩沐礤蜩麇耜桴 噤囡蜞鲨, 疋玎眄 皴珙眄铋 耢屙铋 耩邃 钺栩囗 镳铛钿睇 扈沭囗蝾 镳铞羼皴 桴 礤疱耱钼 扈沭圉栝, 鬣耱眍耱 羼蝈耱忮眄 耧铖钺眍耱 瘥 恹眢溴眄铋 玎溴疰赍 镱腩忸泐 耦琊邂囗 镳 铗耋蝰蜮梃 耔沩嚯铋 耢屙 皴珙眄 忤漕耧弼梏璀麇耜桴 羿牝铕钼. 雨噻囗睇 铎 耧铖钺 邈 溧朦礤轼桴 祛滂翳赅鲨 铍钽梓羼觇 羿牝瞽瘥, 狍潴麒 疣忭铉磬黜 镱 疋铄 汨漯铍钽梓羼觐 镳桊钿 镱 疱嚓鲨 铕汔龛珈 磬 桴 忸玟彘蜮, 怆 邃桧 噤尻忄蝽 觐祜脲犟铎 - 蝠栲漕. 雾 铒疱溴弪 赅 皴珙眄 翳玷铍瞽汨麇耜桢 鲨觌 铕汔龛珈, 蜞 铒蜩爨朦睇 铖祛蜩麇耜栝 沭噤桢眚 戾驿 忭屮礤 忭篁疱憝礤 耩邃囔, 鲥腩 翳玷铍钽梓羼觐 疣忭钼羼桢 铕汔龛珈 耦 耩邃铋 .

碾 忭邃疱龛 镳邃腩驽眄铋 徼铗艴龛觇 忸耧痤桤忸漶蜮 镱矬鲨 瘥 羼蝈耱忮眄 忸漕屐圊 鲥朦 牮筱腩泐滂黜钽 玎忸漶觐泐 瘥犷疣玮邃屙 疣琊噌铗囗 溧朦礤轼屐 篑瞽忮瘌屙耱忸忄磬 耔耱屐 忸漕耥噌驽龛 瘥犷忸漤 躅轳蜮 磬 镳桊钿眍-镳铎脲眄 镳桧栾圊 桧驽礤痦铋 铍钽梃. 枢 磬栳铍邋 磬溴骓铄 铐铎梓眍 疱龛, 镳桧鲨镨嚯 眍铄 潆 瘥犷忸漶蜮, 镳邃豚汔弪 耔耱屐 钺铕铗眍泐 忸漕耥噌驽龛 瘥犷忸漤 躅轳蜮, 镱忸 牮筱腩泐滂黜 觐礓桷桀龛痤忄螯 犷朦 玎镟覃 忸潲 膻犷泐 蝈祜屦囹箴眍泐 疱骅 耦耱噔, 漕镱腠栩咫 桁妣轳 疱黜铋. 佩 耋铖螯 耦耱铊 蝾, 黩 忸漕耥噌驽龛 瘥犷忸漤 躅轳蜮 漕镱腠栩咫 钺羼镥麒忄弪 耔耱屐铋 镱溏屐睇 (/桦 镱塍玎汶筢脲憝睇) 疱珏疴筻痤-铗耱铋龛觐 犷朦泐 钺爨, 镱玮铍桴 桤铍桊钼囗睇 铗 觌桁囹 篑腩 耦汶囫钼囹 疱龛 疣礤 嚯屦磬蜩忭 镳钺脲 蝈镫铨礤疸铉囹疣 铟桉蜿 忸潲. 务钼眍 镳桧鲨 疣犷螓 耔耱屐 忸漕耥噌驽龛 玎觌噱蝰 牮筱腩泐滂黜铎 钺铕铗眍 忸漕磬徭屙梃 瘥犷忸漤 玎忸漕 觐灬桧桊钼囗眍泐 蜩镟, 磬镳桁屦 铖弪痤忸-徨腩瘥狳邈, 躅腩洵眍榛 忸漕 (3-70, 潆 疣玮邃屙 铖屙礤礤疱耱簋 疱珏疴圉梃 忮皴眄屙屦羼蝮桴), 屣铋 (9-150, 潆 疣玮邃屙 忮皴眄屙屦羼蝮桴 瘥 疱珏疴圉梃 铖屙礤礤疱耱簋) 耦铗弪耱怏桢 皴珙睇 泐溧 镱 2- 耔耱屐囔 玎礻眢蝾 鲨痍箅鲨 忸潲.

骂珈铈眍耱 蜞觐泐 忭羼瀛珙眄钽 瘥犷疣玮邃屙 铖眍忄磬 磬 篑蜞眍怆屙睇 磬扈 翦牝圊 汨漯铌铐滂鲨铐桊钼囗, 耦猸镟溴龛 滂囡噻铐钼 蝈祜屦囹箴 疣玮邃屙 忮皴眄屙屦羼蝮桴 瘥 蝈祜屦囹箴囔 疱珏疴圉梃 铖屙礤礤疱耱簋 忤漕 ( 磬钺铕铗), 蜞赕 聃钿耱忸 蝈祜屦囹箴 镱麾 沭箜蝾恹 忸 皴铐睇扈 礤疱耱钼 潆 疣玮钿桁 瘥 戾耱眍泐 觌桁囹梓羼觐泐 镱襦. 朽耨祛蝠屙 忸绛祛骓 忄痂囗螓 箫疣怆屙 耦耱噔铎 忸潲 潆栩咫铋 戾骜彗铐眍 蝈痨铖蜞徼腓玎鲨 邋 耔耱屐铋 玎汶筢脲眄 蝈镫铑犰屙龛觐, 怅膻鬣 忸珈铈眍耱 桉镱朦珙忄龛 镱溏屐睇 忸漤 桉蝾黜桕钼. 橡邃忄痂蝈朦睇扈 蝈蹴桕-铐铎梓羼觇扈 疣聍弪囔 镱赅玎眍, 黩 筲咫梓屙桢 钺爨 疱珏疴筻痤 镳铒铕鲨铐嚯 忸琊囫蜞弪 镳钿箨蜩忭铖螯 铋 耔耱屐, 觐蝾痤 怙屦恹 耦汶囫钼囗 镳桧鲨稃 屦泐襻屦彐屙 铟桉蜿 忸潲, 镳 铎 邋 箐咫 皴徨耱铊祛耱 镳铒铕鲨铐嚯 耥桄噱蝰.

锐牦耨蜮屙眍 玎忸漶觐 忸耧痤桤忸漶蜮 镱矬鲨 腩耦皴恹 瘥 磬 皴忮痤-玎镟溴, 磬 钺 鲥朦, 耋耱忮眄 铗腓鬣弪 铗 蜞觐忸泐 睇 忸耱铟睇 疱汨铐圊 镳桧鲨- 嚯 - 铗 铖弪痤忸漶蜮. 袜镳桁屦, 镱溧怆邋 犷朦眈蜮 腩耦皴恹 瘥犷忸漤 玎忸漕 疣耧铍嚆噱蝰 磬 嚓忄蝾痂 龛珙恹 礤疱耱桦棂, 礤镱耩邃耱忮眄 铗牦溧 桤噱 琊咫 镳铊绛忸滂蝈脲. 项耠 潆栩咫铋 (皴珙眄铋) 桧牦徉鲨 桕瘥 恹疣忄龛 祛腩滂 怙腩螯 漕 溻篚泐钼嚯钽 忸琊囫蜞 邋 恹矬耜帼 礤镱耩邃耱忮眄 磬 玎忸漶牦 嚓忄蝾痂 忸漕屐. 碾 囗嚯桤 (忮顸爨 疣珥铒豚眍恹) 镳梓桧 桴 疣珉梓栝 (腩耦皴忸漶蜮 犷脲 祛腩潲 铖弪痤忸漶蜮铎) 磬栳铍邋 觐眈蝠箨蜩忮 戾蝾 耦镱耱噔栩咫钽 囗嚯桤, 镱玮铍栝 腩汨麇耜 镱耠邃钼囹咫眍 恹怆螯 镳桉镱耦徼蝈朦睇 镳桧鲨稃 玎觐眍戾痦铖蜩 徼铍钽梓羼觇 ( 耦鲨嚯) 怆瀛龛 溧脲 疣琊噌囹囹 觐黻疱蝽 徼铗艴眍腩汨麇耜桢 疱龛 - 戾蝾潲 徼铗艴龛觇 漕 铛疣铖镱耦犴钽 箴钼. 袜栳铍邋 珥圜桁铋 钺牝桠眍 (觌桁囹梓羼觇 玎忤耔祛) 镳梓桧铋 蜞铋 耧弼梏桕 腩耦皴忸漶蜮 磬 皴忮痤-玎镟溴 怆弪 铖钺屙眍 觐痤蜿栝 礤疱耱钼 忮沐蜞鲨眄 皴珙睇 镳 疱黜铎 忸漕耥噌驽龛 瘥犷忸漤 玎忸漕.

湾钺躅滂禧, 磬觐礤, 疣琊噌铗赅 徼铗艴龛觇 铕汔龛玎鲨 铍钽梓羼觇-钺铖眍忄眄钽 恹矬耜 恹疣眄铋 祛腩滂 腩耦皴恹 瘥 忸漕屐 襦扈扈 腩耦皴恹扈 瘥犷忸漤 玎忸溧, 篑蜞眍怆屙桢 桴 铗忮蝰蜮屙眍耱 玎 铗 觐礤黜 ( 忄骓彘 潆 镳铎忸玮疣蜞) 囡 玎忸耜钽 忸耧痤桤忸漶蜮 腩耦皴恹, 赅  溧忭 镳桧蝾 磬 铖弪痤恹 瘥犷忸漤 玎忸溧. 橡邃豚汔弪 眍忄 瘥犷躅轳蜮屙磬 觐眦屣鲨 礤钺躅滂祛耱 忖邃屙 镳噔钼钽 耱囹篑 痂痤漤-镳铎脲眄 瘥犷忸漤 觐祜脲犟钼 潆 瘥犷忸漤 玎忸漕 镳邃豚汔弪 镫囗 戾痤镳蜩 镱 疣琊噌铗赍 磬篦眍-戾蝾滂麇耜桴 钺铖眍忄龛 桴 耦玟囗 桉镱朦珙忄龛. 亦觇 镳桊钿眍-镳铎脲眄 瘥犷忸漤 觐祜脲犟 赅 忄骓彘 桧潴耱痂嚯 耦耱噔桢 漕腈睇 怩钿栩 耔耱屐 疣鲨铐嚯钽 瘥犷躅轳蜮屙眍泐 镳桊钿铒铍钼囗. 埋 徼铗艴龛 忸耧痤桤忸漶蜮 瘥犴 玎镟耦 (忄骓彘, 蝠箐眍 忸珙犴钼屐 徼铍钽梓羼觇 疱耋瘃钼) 镳桊钿眍-镳铎脲眄 瘥犷忸漤 觐祜脲犟囔 漕腈磬 猁螯 铖眍忄磬 磬 桧潴耱痂嚯 镳桧鲨镟 桧驽礤痦铋 铍钽梃. 皱朦 忸耧痤桤忸漶蜮 - 耦躔囗屙桢, 镱滗屦驵龛 筲咫梓屙桢 镳钿箨蜩忭铖蜩 镱矬鲨 鲥眄 忤漕 瘥 祛驽 猁螯 漕耱桡眢蜞 蝾朦觐 镳祛 玎桧蝈疱耦囗眍耱 铗忮蝰蜮屙眍耱 瘥犷忸漤 玎忸漕 (蝈 犷脲 耱囹篑 痂痤漤-镳铎脲憝睇 瘥犷忸漤 觐祜脲犟钼) 邋 漕耱桄屙梃, .. 觐礤黜铎 镳铎腩忸 忸玮疣蝈. 漯筱铋 耱铕铐, 耔耱屐 瘥犷躅轳蜮屙眍泐 镳桊钿铒铍钼囗 礤钺躅滂祛 怅膻麒螯 戾踵龛珈 钺囹眍 疋玷 忤溴 疣琊噌铗觇 眍痨囹桠眍 漕牦戾眚圉梃 (镱 疱珞朦蜞蜞 囗嚯桤 祛龛蝾痂磴) 镟耧铕蜩玎鲨 镱矬鲨 鲥眄 忤漕 镳铎腩恹 瘥. 相耧铕蜩玎鲨 ( 铗腓麒 铗 桤忮耱铋 桎屙蜩翳赅鲨铐眍 - 沐礤蜩麇耜铋) 漕腈磬 怅膻鬣螯 皴 踵疣牝屦桉蜩觇 镳彐溴 怦邈 镳钿箨蜩忭铖蜩, 麒耠屙眍耱, 镱腩忸泐 忸琊囫蝽钽 耦耱噔钼 镱矬鲨, 镱赅玎蝈脲 耦耱龛 忤漕忸泐 徼铍钽梓羼觐泐 镳钽疱耨, .. 钺玎蝈朦睇 潆 耦犭屙栝 沭圄桕 徼铗艴龛赍 玎钿耜钽 忸耧痤桤忸漶蜮 眍痨囹桠睇 觐祜脲犟.

袜觐礤, 忄骓铋 玎溧麇 耦躔囗屙 徼铕噻眍钺疣玷 镳桊钿睇 疱耋瘃钼 磬泐 疱汨铐 怆弪 耧囫屙桢 肃漕骜觐 镱矬鲨 莉豚眚梓羼觐泐 铖弪疣.

碾 邋 疱龛 礤钺躅滂祛 耦绛溧龛 铖弪痤忸漤钽 躅轳蜮 徉耨彘礤 肃漕骜觐泐 铉屦, 忸漕屐 铒蜩爨朦眍 潆 耦躔囗屙 爨蝾黜钽 耱噤 铖弪痤恹 瘥 磬 彦忮痤-青镟溴. 项 磬祗 镳邃耱噔脲龛  玎溧鬣 祛驽 猁螯 篑镥 疱磬 蝾朦觐 矬蝈 忡噼祛溴轳蜮 镳桊钿铑躔囗睇 瘥犷躅轳蜮屙睇 戾痤痂蜩, 黩 汔疣眚桊箦, 鬣耱眍耱, 磬溴骓铄 镱塍麇龛 镱襦漕黜钽 爨蝈痂嚯. 袜镳桁屦 镱 戾驿箜囵钿眍 镳钽疣祆 缅痨囗 项朦 篑镥 忸耨蜞磬怆桠帼 镱矬鲨 徉腧栝耜钽 铖弪疣. 武磬觐 桤-玎 铗耋蝰蜮 铖弪痤忸漤铋 徉琨 嚓觌桁囹桤圉桀眄 戾痤镳蜩, 磬鬣螓 磬 妁 1955 . 猁腓 玎忮瘌屙 1982 . 蝾朦觐 磬 箴钼礤 篑镥铋 铗疣犷蜿 徼铗艴龛觇. 项蝾祗 禧 镳邃豚汔屐 恹铒桉囗眢 箜桠屦襦朦眢 徼铗艴眍腩汨 潆 耦玟囗 铖弪痤忸漤铋 徉琨, 耧弼栲腓玷痤忄眄铋 潆 彦忮痤-青镟漤钽 疱汨铐.

疋玷 耦怵屐屙睇 耦耱龛屐 铍钽梓羼觇 耦鲨嚯-铐铎梓羼觇 篑腩忤 磬 彦忮痤-青镟溴 彦忮疱 蓄耨梃 疱觐戾礓箦 耠邃簋 铕汔龛玎鲨铐睇 瘥犷躅轳蜮屙睇 戾痤镳蜩.

1. 湾钺躅滂祛 耦玟囗桢 邃桧铋 徉琨 溧眄 镱 戾驿箜囵钿眍祗 觐溴犟 镳桊钿铑躔囗眍泐 玎觐眍溧蝈朦耱忄, 怅膻鬣 疣忸忸 镱脲 性, 蜞赕 铖眍忭 疋邃屙 疱觐戾礓圉梃 镱 铍钽梓羼觐 徨珙镟耥铖蜩 疱汨铐钼. 2. 皱脲耦钺疣珥 耵铕扈痤忄螯 沭箫矬 耧屦蝾 镳 钺豚蝽铋 铍钽梓羼觐 镳铌箴囹箴圊 桤 耧弼栲腓耱钼 铗疣耠邂钽 镳桊钿铑躔囗眍泐, 瘥犷躅榄耱忮眄钽 嚓噤屐梓羼觐泐 镳铘桦, 磬镳桁屦 侨 欣, 寥 欣, 妹, 严崦, 妙裢任姓 漯. 3. 朽琊噌铗囹 镱腩驽龛 钺 桤溧龛 瘥犷躅轳蜮屙眍泐, 桴蜩铍钽梓羼觐泐 镳桊钿铑躔囗钽 骟痦嚯 潆 彦忮痤-青镟漤钽 彦忮痦 疱汨铐钼 性 篦疱滂螯  桤溧龛. 念 钽 疱铎屙漕忄螯 忖羼蜩 疣玟咫 躜桀腩汨 瘥犴铄 躅轳蜮罨 钿桧 桤 瘥犷腩忭-耧铕蜩忭 骟痦嚯钼. 署铎 蝾泐, 矬犭桕钼囹 溧眄 镳桊钿铑躔囗睇 桉耠邃钼囗, 疱觐戾礓圉 栩钽圊 桴 忭邃疱龛 疱汨铐嚯 桤溧龛 (襻铕龛赅, 怅膻鬣 严). 4. 怦艴 桤戾礤龛, 怅膻鬣 镳铄牝 疱铕汔龛玎鲨 疱骅祛 磬 蝈痧栩铕 嚓忄蝾痂 铖钺 铛疣屐 镳璀狃彐睇 蝈痧栩铕栝 (挝弦) 玎犭嚆钼疱戾眄 桧纛痨桊钼囹 桴 篦疱滂蝈脲 疣琊噌铗麒觐. 7. 阳铕扈痤忄螯 钺滂礤眄 耧弼栲腓玷痤忄眄 喻屙 杨忮 (侨, 寥, 妹, 妙裢任姓, 镳桊钿铑躔囗睇 羿牦朦蝈螓, 赅翦漯 漯.) 潆 疣耨祛蝠屙 镳钽疣祆 铖眍忭 疱觐戾礓喹鲨 镱 铍钽梓羼觐 镳钺脲戾. 如 镳邃耱噔栩咫彘 吾滂礤眄钽 杨忮蜞 耦玟囹 镱耱眄簋 沭箫矬 潆 铒屦囹桠眍泐 铖簌羼蜮脲龛 嚓蝮嚯 疱觐戾礓圉栝. 8. 杨玟囹 怵屐屙眢 疣犷黧 沭箫矬 镱 疱溧牝桊钼囗棹 疣忤 瘥犷腩怦蜮嗷 耦铗忮蝰蜮梃 耦怵屐屙睇扈 溧眄 镱 耦疣礤龛 忸耧痤桤忸漶蜮 徼铞屙铗梓羼觇 疋 铖钺 铛疣屐 铖眍忭 镳铎腩恹 瘥 漯筱桴 汨漯钺桀眚钼. 绣溧牝桊钼囗桢 镳钼钿栩 篦弪铎 桴 疱耋瘃眍泐 耦鲨嚯-铐瞽扈麇耜钽 镱蝈眦栲豚 觐祜脲犟睇 蝠遽钼囗栝 镱 铛疣礤 忸漕襻铕睇 徉耨彘眍, 铖钺屙眍 铗眍龛 钺牝钼 署囫眍 觏桡 铖眍忭 钺牝钼 瘥犷腩怦蜮 漯筱桴 忸漤 徼铕羼箴钼. 9. 碾 篑桦屙 钺戾磬 桧纛痨圉桢 镱 戾麇睇 澡黼礓梃 铉屦睇 牦戽彘 腩耦皴 鲥羼铑狃噻眍 疣玮桠囹 耦忪羼蝽 桉耠邃钼囗 铛疣眢 徉耨彘眍 蝠囗胥疣龛黜 疱, 黩 疱铎屙漕忄眍 杨铎 篦屙 燕黻-襄蝈疳箴汔. 袜镳桁屦, 镱 溧眄 软耱栩篁 滂麒 瘥犷腩猸耱忄 (斟朦耔黻), 磬 铉. 燕殪 戾 10% 恹矬耜噱禧 瘥. 磬 磬 . 麦铌皴-亦轱铍 (馏痦) 玎 20 戾. 1990/1991-1994/1995 2009沣. 30.10 镱 10.02 篦蝈磬 镱桁赅 11 戾麇睇 瘥 1 戾颦赅 - 耦皴漤邈 疣轭磬 肃漕汨. 吾 漕 玎忸漶觇 牦戽 腩耦 磬 觐眚痤朦眍 篦囫蜿 疱 耦耱噔弪 铌铍 110 . 耋祆  忤潲 祛泱 漕耱桡囹 15-19% 铗 箅钼钼 (7 疱耧铐溴眚钼) 桦 犷朦 桤-玎 镱蝈瘘 镱溻羼睇 戾蝾 (4 镫铗桧 徨 瘥犷躅漕). 锗疣牝屦眍, 黩 镥痂钿 桎痤腩汨麇耜铋 玷禧 1952-1959, 1962沣. 漕 戾腙铋 咫黻杌 (0,4-1,04赉) - 38%, 黩 耩噔屙梃 53% 恹犷痍 1991-1995沣. 溧弪 疣珥桷 15%. 蒡 蜞赕 疋桎弪咫蜮箦 镱腩骅蝈朦铋 痤腓 翳眈觐泐 瘥犷忸漶蜮. 悟戾蜩, 黩 镳 漕扈龛痤忄龛 痼耠钼 铉屦 (77% 潆桧 麦- 铌覃) 潆栩咫铋 扈沭圉梃 祛腩滂 - 210-595 耋. (铗 泐. Varkaus 漯.) 镳羼 觇 祛驽 猁螯 耔朦礤 麒耠屙眍耱 邋 礤钺躅滂祛 耥桄囹. 10. 疋玷 桤腩驽眄, 祛骓 疱觐戾礓钼囹 箫疣怆屙棹 邂玎镳忸浠 忸耨蜞眍忤螯 隋龛磴疣漶牦 钺豚耱眢 桧耧尻鲨 瘥犷铛疣睇.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOENGINEERING AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON RESTORATION OF COMMERCIAL FISH POPULATIONS

P.E. Garlov1, D.K. Dirin2, V.P. Swedov1

1State Scientific Research Institute of lake and river fish facilities 獹OSNIORKH,

2Zoological institute of Russian Academy of Science, Saint-Petersburg, Russia e-mail: garlov@mail.ru

The purpose is a conservation of fish natural populations quantity. New methods of duplication management commercial fish by complex ecological factor and hormonotherapy is offered. These methods of stimulation and delays of sexual maturations, reservations of breeders of any season of the spawning are also presented in the manner of schemes.. System of all-year-round water-supply of fish-farm facilities is designed for application of this new biotecnique. This system is founded on natural-industrial principle engineering ekologii. solve The solution of some fish economical actions important for Northwest region is offered on this basis.

娜屠倘世 吓死萌着咽日 咽蜗伺腿 雄 惹膛团腿 盐岩缆 先偃 问油怕壅 屠 欣峭壅 菀老勒 晕刑刃温劳冗 日胰卧烙哇 雄寥脱饰梦

挛奈招劳人荣 (1950-2008)

.. 缅疣耔祛, .. 肉囗钼, .. 羊疱朦龛觐 喻疱驿屙桢 蓄耨栝耜铋 嚓噤屐梃 磬箨 软耱栩篁 徼铍钽梃 忭篁疱眄桴 忸

桁. . . 相镟龛磬 欣, . 令痤, 唣铖豚怦赅 钺., 蓄耨 e-mail: gu@ibiw.yaroslavl.ru

骡邃屙桢

务眍怏 镥豚汨麇耜钽 觐祜脲犟 宣徼眈觐泐 忸漕躔囗桦棂 耦耱噔 戾腙桢 镥豚汨麇觇 忤潲. 念 1996 泐溧 漕扈龛痼桁 忤漕 猁豚 戾腙 纛痨 邂痤镥轳觐 觐瘙 (Osmerus eperlanus) - 耥弪铌, 2000 泐溧 - 眍恹 潆 忸漕躔囗桦棂 忤, 怦咫桠轳 桤 龛驽 脲帙桴 忸漕躔囗桦棂 - 赅耧栝耜 蟒朦赅 (Clupeonella cultriventris). 珥圜栩咫铎 觐腓麇耱忮 怦蝠鬻噱蝰 祛腩潼 铌箜邂 (铌箜 Perca fluviatilis, 耋溧 Stizostedion lucioperca) 祛腩潼 赅痫瞽恹 (耔礤 Abramis ballerus, 脲 Abramis brama, 麇躅睃 Pelecus cultratus, 镫铗忄 Rutilus rutilus 箨 Alburnus alburnus). 奏耱, 眍 礤犷朦 觐腓麇耱忮 怦蝠鬻帼蝰 矬 (Coregonus albula).

项耠 桉麇珥钼屙 耥弪赅 1996 - 97 沣. 镳铎腩恹 腩 镥豚汨嚯 镳尻疣蜩腭 磬蝾 怵屐 麒耠屙眍耱 疣耧疱溴脲龛 瘥 镥豚汨麇耜钽 觐祜脲犟 礤 疋玎睇 磬镳祗 恹腩忸, 镱耜铍 龛 钿桧 桤 铖眍忭 邈 忤漕 礤 桉镱朦珞弪 镳铎腩. 务眍忭铄 忸玟彘蜮桢 磬 麒耠屙眍耱 怦蝠鬻噱祛耱 镥豚汨麇耜桴 忤漕 铌噻噱 麒耠屙眍耱 忤溧 - 漕扈磬憝蜞 - 赅耧栝耜铋 蟒朦觇 怆龛 爨耨钼 蹊桕钼 , 镥疴簋 铟屦邃, 耋溧赅.

皱朦 疣犷螓 耱嚯 囗嚯桤 滂磬扈觇 麒耠屙眍耱 戾腙桴 镥豚汨麇耜桴 瘥 祛腩滂 铖眍猸睇 忤漕 桴 痤腓 镨蜞龛 耋溧赅 宣徼眈觐泐 忸漕躔囗桦棂 玎 忮顸 镥痂钿 邈 耋耱忸忄.

锑蝈痂嚯 戾蝾滂赅

朽犷蜞 恹镱腠屙 磬 祉钽铍弪龛 爨蝈痂嚯圊 豚犷疣蝾痂 铍钽梃 瘥 攘侣 欣, 怅膻帼 皴 溧眄 蝠嚯屙栝 爨朦觐恹 蝠嚯铎 玎 镥痂钿 1941 镱 2008 沣. 磬 25 - 55 耱囗囵蝽 蝠嚯钼 耱囗鲨 镱 怦彘 嚓忄蝾痂 宣徼眈觐泐 忸漕躔囗桦棂. 赅麇耱忮 镱赅玎蝈 踵疣牝屦桤簋泐 麒耠屙眍耱 戾腙桴 镥豚汨麇耜桴 瘥 祛腩滂 桉镱朦珙忄豚顸 滂磬扈赅 镱赅囹咫 箅钼 磬 篑桦桢 桉耠邃钼囹咫觐泐 蝠嚯 (箅钼 玎 10 扈眢 蝠嚯屙). 橡钺 磬 镨蜞龛 铗徼疣腓顸 耋溧觐 镱殪囗睇 疣珥钽塍徼眄 漕眄 蝠嚯囔 玎 铗 驽 镥痂钿 磬 蝈 驽 蝠嚯钼 耱囗鲨.

绣珞朦蜞螓 钺耋驿屙桢

袜 镥疴铎 囡 纛痨桊钼囗 宣徼眈觐泐 忸漕躔囗桦棂 (1941-1947 沣.) 镨 耋溧赅 耦蝾豚 桤 磬栳铍邋 祉钽铟桉脲眄 忤漕 瘥, 钺栩噔 疱赅 磬 蝈痧栩铕梃 狍潴泐 忸漕爨. 翔忸 囫耦痱桁屙 耋溧赅 1949-1950 沣. 怅膻鬣 屦, 镫铗怏 铌箜 (91% 镱 麒耠 聱邃屙睇 珏祜痤). 硼 镥痂钿 耱囗钼脲龛 忤漕忸泐 耦耱噔 瘥 忸漕躔囗桦棂 猁 漕桧桊簋 觐痨钼 钺牝铎 蹊桕 (73,5% 镱 觐腓麇耱怏 聱邃屙睇 . (青潴朦耜, 1960). 袜 怛铕铎-蝠弪 囡圊 纛痨桊钼囗 忸漕躔囗桦棂 耧尻蝠 镨蜞龛 耋溧赅 疣聒桊桦 玎 聍弪 镳铐桕泐 桤 铃腩泐 铉屦 耥弪赅. 皴疱滂礤 50- 耥弪铌 玎龛爨 蝠弪 戾耱 镱 麒耠屙铖蜩 镥豚汨麇耜桴 耜铒脲龛 瘥 篑蝮镟 蝾朦觐 祛腩滂 镫铗恹 铌箜. 觐眦 溴蜩脲蜩 铐 耱嚯 爨耨钼 忤漕, 漕扈龛痼 镥豚汨嚯 忸漕躔囗桦棂. 铗 镥痂钿 铖眍怏 镨 耋溧 耦耱噔豚 祛腩潼 铌箜 (51%), 屦 (15%) 耥弪赅 (13%)(蓄爨眍忄, 1956). 项 磬 溧眄 镱耠邃簋 溴蜩脲蜩 磬 漕膻 铌箜 镳桴钿桦铖 27-36% (镱 觐腓麇耱怏 聱邃屙睇 .); 屦 - 20-27%; 耥弪赅 -12-20% 镫铗恹 - 6-11 %. 杨忪羼蝽  4 忤溧 觐痨钼 钺牝钼 耦耱喹忤腓 漕 77-88% 铗 怦邈 觐腓麇耱忄 聱邃屙睇 蹊桕囔 瘥 (肉囗钼, 1966).

疣珉梓睇 疣轭磬 耋犭栩铕嚯 徉蜩嚯 磬 戾耱圊 磬泱豚 耋溧 聱邃嚯 觐腓麇耱忸 镨, 疣忭铄 0,7-2,1% 耦狁蜮屙眍泐 忮襦. 泐漕忸 疣鲨铐 蹊桕 玎忤耔祛耱 铗 耱屣屙 漕耱箫铖蜩 觐痨钼 钺牝钼 磬栳铍栝 箐咫 忮 桁咫 耠邃簋 忤潲 瘥: 镫铗忄 (19,834,3%), 屦 (24,6- 32,0%), 祛腩潼 铌箜 (16,7-19,5%) 耥弪铌 (8,4-13,0%).

90- 泐溧 镳铠腩泐 耱铍弪 桤戾龛腓顸 麒耠屙眍耱 疣耧疱溴脲龛 铖眍忭 觐痨瞽恹 钺牝钼 耋溧赅: 桉麇珉 桤 箅钼钼 觐瘙 (耥弪铌). 70- 泐溧 铐 猁豚 祉钽铟桉脲眄铋 徉蜩嚯 忸漕躔囗桦棂. 与钼 邋 漕耱桡嚯 > 10 螓 箨 玎 10 扈眢 蝠嚯屙 爨朦觐恹 蝠嚯铎, 箧 1998 . 腩忤豚顸 腓 邃桧梓眍 (耢. 蜞犭桷) (缅疣耔祛, 皖忤觐, 2001). 铗 镥痂钿 镥豚汨嚯 镱 麒耠屙眍耱 漕扈龛痤忄豚 祛腩潼 赅痫钼 (56,1%) 铌箜邂 (27,7%). 皴疱滂睇 90- 泐漕 20 忮赅 宣徼眈觐 忸漕躔囗桦棂 镳铐桕豚 麇痦铎铕耜-赅耧栝耜 蟒朦. 襄疴铄 箫铎桧囗桢 邋 镱镟溧龛 蝠嚯 铗眍耔蝰 1993 泐潴. 溧朦礤轼屐 铐 耱嚯 钺 忤漕, 眍 邋 箅钼 玎 10 扈眢 蝠嚯屙 爨朦觐恹 蝠嚯铎 礤 镳邂嚯 20-40 箨. 项钺磬 赅痱桧 耦躔囗豚顸 漕 2000 泐溧, 觐沅 猁腩 铗戾麇磬 怦稃 麒耠屙眍耱 蟒朦觇 (蜞岘腓鲟). 疱珞朦蜞蝈 铗 忤 耱嚯 漕扈龛痼桁 耦耱噔 漕 97% 麒耠屙眍耱 瘥 箅钼圊 爨朦觐忸泐 蝠嚯. 务屙 2002 . 玎 10 扈. 蝠嚯屙 恹豚怆桠嚯 > 5 螓. . 蟒朦觇. 埋 铖嚯 忤潲 铗 镥痂钿 箅钼圊 猁腓 镳邃耱噔脲睇 邃桧梓眍 桁咫 10 - 20 % 怦蝠鬻噱铖螯 (蜞犭桷).  驽 怵屐 疱珀 耦牮囹桦囫 镱矬鲨 屦: 铐 桉麇 桤 箅钼钼 磬 怦艴 徼瞽蝾镟 珙 腓蝾疣腓, 耋犭栩铕嚯 徉蜩嚯 (疏, 1982). 杨躔囗桦桉 爨腩麒耠屙睇 镱矬梃 钽 忤溧 忮瘐钼 疱, 铗牦溧 箧 磬鬣脲 2000 . 耱嚯 忸耨蜞磬怆桠囹 邈 麒耠屙铖螯 镫羼圊.

亦犭桷

蔫磬扈赅 箅钼钼 镥豚汨麇耜桴 瘥 ( % 铗 钺 麒耠屙眍耱 箅钼).

1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
隐朦赅 0,5 12,1 82,9 89,0 97,6 67,7 77,6 33,9 70,3 72,6 59,2
秧弪铌 12,5 4,7 1,7 0,2 0,1 - - 0,0
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霹 镱 蝈戾 寥我耪腿世 挛严形惹挛难衣 信饰膛湍乐热 衔 盐招劳磐绒 衔嫌诉秩 峙屯壅 氯奈 闲翁垩宋论 雄:

  1. 盐呐衅劳扰
  2. 寥我耪腿世 挛严形惹挛难衣 信饰膛湍乐热 衔 盐招劳磐绒 衔嫌诉秩 峙屯壅 氯奈 闲翁垩宋论 雄